…the metabolic habits of microbes have earned them a bad press

[The Leaven –  exploring the relationship between science and religion (cont)]

Based on archaeological evidence, it is thought that the Earth was created approximately 4.6 billion years ago and that life originated in the form of bacteria 3.8 billion years ago. Multicellular organisms, in various microscopic forms, are thought to have first existed about a billion years ago and are thought to have given rise to simple animals,such as sponges and anemones. More complex forms of animals started to appear 550 million years ago (mya). Arthropods are thought to have appeared first, followed by fish, land plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds and flowering plants respectively. First primates that resembled humans arrived on the scene 2.5 mya with humans resembling the present form arriving just 200,000 years ago. Neanderthals disappeared fairly recently, only 25,000 years ago. A short time in evolutionary terms but still a vast time scale  for a human with an average life span of 62.5 years to visualise. When the Bible was written human life span was only 28 years.

Trilobite fossils, early anthropods that are now extinct. Image Moussa Direct Ltd.

The Bible condenses the time scale that humans arrived on earth within the space of a few days. On the first day God created light which was divided into day and night. The next day, water were divided from the sky and earth was divided into land and sea. It was not until the third day that Life first appeared when God created vegetation. During the fourth day planets and stars were added with time being divided into seasons, days and years. On the fifth day God creates birds and sea creatures,  commanding them to be fruitful and multiply. Finally on the sixth he adds wild beasts, livestock and reptiles, creating humanity in his own “image”. The humans are instructed to be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth and subdue it. In the book of Genesis the Bible draws a distinction between animals and humans, with emphasis on human superiority.

God said, ‘Let us make humans in our own image, in the likeness of ourselves, and let them be masters of the fish of the sea, the birds of heaven, the cattle, all the wild animals and all the creatures that creep along the ground.’
[Gen 1. 26]

There are a number of misconceptions in the account of creation within the Bible. The stars and planets must have existed before the introduction of life.  Seasons would  prerequisite the existance of vegetation. We are now also aware that reptiles existed before mammalian species on account of dinasaur fossil records. These restrictions in knowledge also result in no reference to the creation of microbes within Genesis but there are several references to disease and of fermentation processes throughout the Bible.

An early reptilian Apatosaurus louisae skeleton in the Carnegie Museum. Image by Tadek Kurpaski

Ancient civilisations would be completely unaware of the causes to many diseases. In general, injuries resulting from accidents or animal bites were understood and treated by various dressings, including sesame oil, wine and balsams, some of which contained naturally occurring antibiotics. In contrast the mechanisms behind diseases involving parasites or microbes were a complete mystery and thought to have been placed in the body by evil forces. Consequently, these illnesses were treated by making the body hostile to the invader through intense cleansing with various noxious substances. Diseases were largely viewed as a punishment brought through sin or disobedience.

The Lord said, ‘If you will not obey my commands, you will be punished. If you refuse to obey my laws and commands and break the covenant I have made with you, I will punish you. I will bring disaster on you- incurable diseases and fevers that will make you blind and cause your life to waste away.
[Lev 26.14-16]

As microbes where viewed as some kind of mysterious, unexplained power they were also used to represent the spread of sin and corruption. For instance, in his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul the Apostle uses the permeating character of leaven to illustrate the spreading of corruption within a community.

You know the saying, “A little leaven makes the whole batch of dough rise.” You must remove the old leaven of sin so that you will be entirely pure. Then you will be like a new batch of dough with no leaven, as indeed I know that you actually are. For our Passover Festival is ready, now that Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. Let us celebrate our Passover, then, not with bread having the old leaven of sin and wickedness, but with the bread that has no leaven, the bread of purity and truth.
[1 Cor. 5.6-9]

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